B.Arch. and M.Arch.
Credit and Grading System

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UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
Manual on CREDIT and GRADING SYSTEM
for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programmes in ARCHITECTURE under
FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY
(with effect from the academic year 2012–2013)
Introduction Credit and Grading System Syllabus Scheme Course Credit Structure Examination / Assessment and Grading
Modes of Assessment / Evaluation Grading of Performance

Introduction

1.1 Recommendations of National Regulatory Authorities
The University Grants Commission (UGC), the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC), the Distance Education Council (DEC) and even the National Knowledge Commission (NKC) have time and again come out with recommendations for improving the quality and effectiveness of Higher education provisions in the country. The ministry of Human Resource Development at the Central level and the Ministry of Higher and Technical Education, Govt. of Maharashtra have also repeatedly stressed on the need for universities to pay prompt attention to improve the quality of education.

An important concern voiced more strongly in recent times, is the need to develop a Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) in tune with global trends and the adoption of a sound grading system forreflecting learner performance. To quote Shri S. K. Tripathi, former Secretary, Dept. of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India...
"The demand for socially relevant, economically productive, globally competitive, culturally sustaining and individually satisfying programmes that cater to the needs of the present times is fast growing. The constraints of pursuing programmes and participation in pre-determined combination of Courses pose rigidities not in keeping with the demands of the changing times."...
There is a need for a fully convertible credit-based system acceptable to other universities.


Recommendation of the UGC in its Action Plan for Academic and Administrative Reforms (Ref. UGC letters January 2008; March 2009)...
"Curricular flexibility and learners' mobility is an issue that warrants our urgent attention. These can be addressed by introducing credit based courses and credit accumulation. In order to provide with some degree of flexibility to learners, we need to provide flexibility in course selection and also a minimum as well as a maximum permissible span of time in which a course can be completed by a learner... The Choice-Based Credit System (CBCS) imminently fits into the emerging socioeconomic milieu and could effectively respond to the educational and occupational aspirations of the upcoming generations. In view of this, institutions of higher education in India would do well to invest thought and resources into introducing CBCS. Aided by modern communication and information technology, CBCS has a high probability to be operationalised efficiently and effectively - elevating learners, institutions and higher education system in the country to newer heights".


The National Knowledge Commission (NKC) under the chairmanship of Mr. Sam Pitroda, in its report to the Prime Minister on 29th November, 2006) has also reiterated the importance of higher education and the contribution it has made to economic development, social progress and political democracy in independent India. However, the Commission has also pointed out to a "serious cause for concern" at this juncture. According to Mr. Pitroda,...
"It is important for us to recognize that there is a quiet crisis in higher education in India which runs deep. And the time has come to address this crisis in a systematic, forthright manner...
There is a need for a transition to a course credit system where degrees are granted on the basis of completing a requisite number of credits from different courses, which provides learners with choices".


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